Click here to subscribe to the cocopeat news letter.
Answers to your most frequently asked questions.
Discussion board where you can post your Q & As, and exchange ideas with other readers.
Contact Details
Email Us
Home Page
Product List
Site Map
Privacy Policy
About Galuku Pty. Ltd.
2009 catalogue
Golf Green Construction


A proven practice in green construction is the incorporation of COCOPEAT as organic amendment into the soil for the root zone. When sand with a particle size distribution in compliance with the USGA standards is amended with COCOPEAT at a rate of 3% by weight the following benefits are achieved:

  Bulk Density t/m3 Total Porosity Capillary Porosity % (water holding) Non-Capillary Porosity % Saturated Conductivity cm/hr
Control Sand 1.54 41.7 6.8 34.9 170
3% Cocopeat (Galuku Coir)™ 1.3 49.4 19.5 29.9 95
USGA Range - 35-55 15-25 15-30 15-30
Table 1:Soil Physical Test Results

Physical Effects
Greatly improved capillary porosity (water holding) with minimal reduction in non-capillary porosity

  • 50% improvement in hydraulic conductivity
  • Soil drainage is not impeded
  • Improves manageability of greens in hot climates or during summer months
  • Reduce irrigation frequency

Chemical Effects

  • Increased potassium levels
  • Improved phosphorus levels
  • Increased cation exchange capacity
  • Improved nutrient retention
  • Reduced frequency and rates of fertiliser application

Capillary porosity in Cocopeat amended sand

Golf Greens constructed with Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) amended sand requires less nutrients and less maintenance. It helps conserve water and reduces nutrient run off, therefore benefiting the entire community around these golf courses.

All the evidence suggests that Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) is a direct alternative to sphagnum peat moss. Where Turf Managers have strong beliefs about being environmentally responsible, and feel that sphagnum peat moss mining is undesirable, they can use Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) with confidence and a clear conscience.

Core Sample of Golf GreenGolf Superintendents agree-

"The major advantage of using Galuku Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) as an amendment is it's incredible water saving abilities and it's nutrient retaining qualities. I also believe that, as Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) naturally contains potassium, that it helps to retain potassium fertilisers when they are applied. It also helps create an easily maintainable soil profile which is excellent for turf growth and it makes it much more manageable - moving it around with a Bobcat is a dream!"

"Galuku Cocopeat (Galuku Coir), does not clog the profile, it maintains the perched water table and there is no acid leaching. I strongly recommend its inclusion as organic soil amendment"

Steve Seckold
Course Superintendent,
Royal Windsor Country Golf Club

"Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) was used as a soil amendment on the Coolangatta and Tweed Heads Golf Course and the Glades, Mudgereeba, an 18 hole Greg Norman Design Course. Both customers found that the Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) blended in exceptionally well with the USGA sand mix and provides excellent nutrient and moisture retention. Riversands would have no hesitation in recommending Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) for all sand based sportsfield constructions."

John Goedemans
Product Manager,
River Sands Pty. Ltd
Ashmore City QLD

"Prior to constructing Springs, we undertook extensive research on the latest greens technology. We could not ignore the overwhelming body of evidence supporting the inclusion of Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) as a soil amendment so we opted for a sand profile is 325mm deep of Williamstown sand with a 10% volume of cocopeat throughout the whole profile.

We have used this amendment for the whole 18 holes at Springs. We have found the Cocopeat (Galuku Coir)/sand mix extremely manageable, greens germinated quickly and consistently and we have been able to reduce application of fertilisers and water while maintaining healthy, hard wearing greens. I thoroughly endorse the use of Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) during the construction and reconstruction - it saves time, resources and money over the long term".

John Groom
Course Superintendent,
Springs Golf Course,
Peats Ridge, Central Coast NSW


  1. A turf soil testing laboratory will mix several combinations of sand and amendment (Cocopeat (Galuku Coir)) until they have a rootzone within the specified range of Moisture Retention, Porosity and Infiltration Rate.

  2. The laboratory then specifies that rootzone mix, based either on:

    1. organic matter content - the rootzone is specified according to the OM content of the optimum mix (eg: 1.5% OM)

    2. volumetric rate - the rootzone is specified according to the volume of Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) to be mixed with a volume of loose sand (eg: 10% amendment rate)

    3. gravimetric rate - the rootzone is specified according to a weight of dry Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) to be mixed to a certain weight of sand (eg: 1.2% by weight)

    4. Moisture Retention specification - the rootzone is specified according to the final Moisture Retention required (eg: 14%, plus or minus 1%).

    Of the four methods, the Moisture Retention method is probably the most sensible. After all, the Moisture Retention is the reason the Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) is added, and will have the most dramatic effect on the surface if you get it wrong (green patches and stressed patches). It is also reasonably easy to test - a Turf Manager or a consultant can take a sample from a truckload and test it for Moisture Retention relatively quickly (over a 2 day period using the conventional method, but more quickly using a moisture sensing method). This method is probably not favoured by the sand suppliers, who are better equipped for volumetric or gravimetric specifications.

  3. Cocopeat being deliveredGet the Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) delivered to the sand quarry in bulk form. Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) should weigh around 120 grams per litre. Blend the Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) and sand in the required percentages by volume. Minimum recommended rateof15% Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) by volume.

Mixing of Organic Material into Sand
Organic material should not be mixed by rotary hoeing it into the top of the green as this will lead to a very uneven distribution of the material throughout the profile. In some areas the mixture could be 200mm deep and in others it could be 100mm. This leads to differing nutrient and water contents, and this will be reflected in uneven root growth.

Mix your organic amendment such as Cocopeat (Galuku Coir), into the sand at the quarry source by the supplier. This way the organic mix will be more uniform and you will be able to spread the blend more accurately and be assured of a high quality profile throughout the green.

Rootzone Construction
Cocopeat (Galuku Coir) amended sand is delivered to the Green construction site.

Cocopeat amended sand being delivered  Amended sand being spread

Amended sand is spread to create rootzone profile. Seeded rootzone profile is raked.

Seeded rootzone profile is raked  Greens being inspected  Uniform growth of the Green is evident

Two weeks after seeding the germination of the greens is inspected. Twelve weeks after seeding the uniform growth of the Green is evident.

Using Cocopeat
Hydroponic Growing
How to use Cocopeat Hydroponic Slabs
How to use the Easyfil Hydroponic PlanterBags
Potting Mixes
Seed Raising Substrates
Golf Green Construction
Distributors of Horticulture & Gardening Products
Mushroom Casing
© Copyright Galuku Pty Ltd 2002. Information contained in this website cannot be reproduced, copied or reprinted without specific authorisation from Galuku Pty Ltd.
Soem | Sydney